abundance pattern the establishment of an identifiable increase in a population over a period of time
adaptations inherited physiological or behavioral mechanisms which enable an organism to survive
adipose fin located on posterior dorsal surface; no bones or spines; contains fatty deposits, hence name; often removed on hatchery fish for easy identification
adult an organism which has matured to a stage capable of reproduction
alevin newly hatched salmonid; yolk sac attached
anadromous migratory life cycle which begins in fresh water, moves to salt water, then returns to fresh water to spawn; derived from Greek - up running
anatomy the component parts of a living multicellular organism; the study of those parts
aquatic pertaining to water
attitude assumptions based on implied beliefs and values, with a predicted behavior; e.g., “Foxes should not be controlled”
belief an information-based assumption; may be right or wrong; i.e., “Where there are more pheasants, there are more foxes”
bypass screens very fine screens which allow water, but not fingerlings to pass; used to protect fish from areas such as turbines or irrigation ditches
caddis fly larvae tube-making aquatic insect larvae
carrying capacity the concept that each ecosystem or environment’s nutrient and energy resources will support a maximum number of each species due to limited resources
catadromous migratory life cycle which begins in salt water, moves to fresh water, then returns to salt water to spawn; derived from Greek – down running
caudal fin located on the distal posterior end of the spine; largest fin; often referred to as tail fin
channel area area of a plane transect across a stream
channel gradient degree of slope of stream channel; steepness
channel movement lateral movements of a stream channel in response to kinetic energy of stream; can be initiated by flooding
chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (“on-ko-rink-us tau-wee-cha) species of salmon characterized by large body size, large irregular spots on back, upper sides and tail, black gums (king salmon)
chum Oncorhynchus keta, (on-ko-rink-us kee-ta”) a species of salmon characterized by purple, yellow, and pink streaks on sides during spawning; broadest migratory range (dog salmon)
coho Oncorhynchus kisutch, (“on-ko-rink-us ki-sooch”) a species of salmon characterized by blue black and silver flanks at sea, turning dark green and bright red in fresh water; white gums (silver salmon)
coloration the hues and patterns with which an organism is colored
conservation careful planning and use of resources to save and protect them
contour a line on a map which represents a particular altitude or height above sea level
cover brush or other material which provides shade or a camouflaged hiding place
cutthroat Oncorhynchus clarkii, (“on-ko-rink-us clark-ee-i”) species of Pacific trout characterized by blue-green coloration on back and silver on sides; vivid red “slash” along lower jaw
debris dead plant material in stream or coarse woody material which provides shelter for fry and fingerlings
decadal shift a change over a decade, such as population numbers
detritus Undissolved organic or inorganic matter resulting from the decomposition of parent material.
dichotomous key a written procedure which uses couplets of questions for taxonomic identification, as found in field guides
discharge fluid which flows from land or a structure in the water into a river, stream or lake
dissolved oxygen (D.O.) oxygen in an aquaeous solution as molecular oxygen (O2)
diversity the kinds and numbers of species in an ecosystem or environment
dorsal fin located mid-dorsally on the spine; generally a large fin
ecological pertaining to the interactions between and among the biotic and abiotic (physical) elements of an ecosystem; derived from Greek – house (ecos) knowledge (logos)
ecosystem all of the living and non-living components of an environment
eddies areas of reverse flow in an aquatic system
egg in plants and animals, the cell produced by ovaries; in most cases, they begin development into an individual organism upon fertilization by sperm
embedded set or fixed firmly in a surrounding mass; applies equally to physical objects and concepts
endangered threatened with extinction
Endangered Species Act federal law which protects species which are threatened with extinction
environment the place within which phenomena occur; often refers to our natural world
evidence facts which are observable and measurable
exponential a number increased to a power; in populations, growth which is measured as a power
fertilized an egg whose membrane has been penetrated by the nucleus of a sperm
fingerling stage in salmonid life cycle between fry and smolt; salmon are “finger-sized” in this stage
fishery geographical location where fish are commercially caught; species or type of fish caught by anglers
fleet boats or ships which engage in coordinated movements
food web all of the plants and animals in an ecosystem organized into an interrelated “who eats whom” structure
fox walk a technique used to approach wildlife quietly; involves rolling of the foot from outside to inside when walking
fry young salmon which have absorbed their yolk sac and begun to feed
generation all of the offspring produced in a given season or time period
gill cover bony plate which protects gill tissue
gravels beds of small rocks, up to several inches in diameter, in a stream, where salmon deposit their eggs and milt
habitat the environment in which an organism lives; its “address"
hatcheries constructed facilities where milt from returning male salmon is used to artificially fertilize eggs taken from
returning female salmon; development from egg to fingerling takes place within the confines of the facility
heat stress physiological response to elevated temperatures; extremes can lead to coma and death
home stream the stream where a return salmon had hatched from an egg
in situ occurring in the place in the environment; literally, “in the place;” opposite in vitro, literally, “in the glass;” in the lab
indicator species a species of plant or animal which exhibits a strong sensitivity to an altered range of environmental conditions; used to indicate health of the ecosystem
individual sensitization a species of plant or animal which exhibits a strong sensitivity to an altered range of environmental conditions; used to indicate health of the ecosystem
inference arriving at a conclusion or decision from known facts
irrigation water diverted from streams or rivers or pumped from groundwater, often used for crops
issue a situation, event or phenomenon which is disputed
life cycle life history in stages, e.g. begins in fresh water, moves to salt water, then returns to fresh water to spawn
litter the plant debris deposited on a forest floor or streambed
macroinvertebrates animals without backbones large enough to identify with the unaided eye; often aquatic insects
mating behaviors observable and predictable kinetic behaviors which result in the fertilization of animal eggs by animal sperm
methodology the steps and protocols which contribute to the application of a process
microhabitat within a habitat, this is the actual zone of interaction between the organism and its home environment
migratory behaviors which result in the movement of an organism from one location to another; cyclical, often synchronized with seasons or stage in life cycle
monitor to observe and record, especially over time
Native American people who are indigenous to the Americas
niche the physical habitat and function of an organism in its ecosystem; its “occupation"
nitrogen bubbles nitrogen in the gaseous state in water; concentrations are increased by aeration and/or rapid submersion to depth
Northern Pike Minnow A species of fish with a large digestive system, capable of holding several fish at a time; prey on salmon in reservoirs
observations records of sensory inputs according to protocols which include operationally defined criteria

a genus of animals refering to NW salmon, steelhead, and cutthroat trout; derived from Greek – hook nosed
opinions  a belief not based on certainty; a judgement
organism a living thing
out of phase an anticipated cycle which shifts unexpectedly out of its pattern
parameter a specific entity or condition which is measured, and whose value varies with its conditions
parr salmonid fry before smoltification
pectoral fin lateral anterio-ventral fin; analogous to arms in a human
pelvic fin lateral posterio-ventral fins; analogous to legs in a human
pH a measure of the activity of hydrogen ion in an aquaeous environment
physical structure the abiotic components of a stream
physiological adaptations cellular and molecular adaptations of organisms to their environments or reproductive strategies
pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, (“on-ko-rink-us gor-boo-scha”) most abundant species of Pacific salmon; large oval black spots on tail and back; rigid two-year life cycle
pool place where water in a stream exhibits a very weak current
population the number of individuals in a species within a prescribed area
porous state of having holes; absorbs water
reproduce to make a copy of; in living organisms, to produce ofspring
resource something which is ready to use or put to a purpose
riffle graded place in a stream where water runs over gravels and its surface is broken
rights that which a person has a just claim to
riparian area containing a stream and its associated plants and floodplain
root wad the twisted roots of a tree which has fallen from the stream bank into a stream; provides protection for small fish
runoff water which lands on a surface, is not absorbed, and runs into a stream or other water body
salmon a group of bony fish; members of the family Salmonidae
salmonids common name, or contraction of Salmonidae
sampling using a portion of an environment or population for measurement or observation
scour the abrasive effect of rapidly moving water on the sides and bottom of a stream, creating deeper water habitat and pools
sediment geological material which has moved from land to stream and settles to the bottom
sediment-free stream bottoms which contain no land-derived fine geological material
smolt stage in salmonid life cycle in which some fingerlings undergo the physiological changes necessary for movement into salt water
sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka, (“on-ko-rink-us ner-ka”) a species of salmon whose greenish blue finely speckled back and silver sides turn bright red on return to fresh water; some remain in fresh water all of their lives (kokanee); juveniles prefer lakes to streams
spawning area that part of the stream bottom which contains gravels suitable for depositing eggs
species the definitive taxonomic group; a group of organisms which interbreed, but do not breed with other related organisms
spores asexual reproductive cells of some plants, fungi and protozoa
stable in a state of dynamic equilibrium, and not subject to easy disturbance
steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss, (on-ko-rink-us my-kiss”) a species of anadramous trout with metallic blue back and silver sides; a red band on sides during spawning
stream water flowing toward base and its bed
streambed the rock, gravel and sediments which form the bottom of a stream
stream channel in cross-section, the land structure which holds a stream; consists of a main path and lateral channels, which may not be immediately obvious
stream flow water running through a stream channel; movement of water through its channel as measured in meters per second
stream gradient steepness of the longitudinal slope of a stream bed
substrate the nutrients and physical composition of a streambed
surface area the square measure of the exterior of an entity
taxa a group or category, at any level, in a system for classifying plants or animals
taxonomy the study of characteristics of organisms which differentiate them from others
temperature amount of kinetic energy in a system
temperature tolerance the range of temperatures which an organism endures without mortality
thermal responses all of the behavioral and physiological responses of an organism to a range of temperatures
treaty an agreement, binding and legal, between two or more sovereign nations; sovereignty refers to the right of self-government and self-determination, or the ability of people to make decisions for themselves
turbidity the amount of suspended matter in a water body; a measurement of such suspended matter
turbines large bladed shafts which are turned by water, and whose rotary motion is used in dams to generate electricity
value a worth attached to some event, place, idea, etc.; e.g., “Foxes are beautiful and important creatures”
water quality an assessment of the content of a water body such as its chemical composition, temperature, pH
watershed the basin which holds a water system including main channels and tributaries
watershed management using the geology, hydrology, sociology and biology of watersheds to plan their use